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Analysis of an urban grid with high photovoltaic and e-mobility penetration

  • This study analyses the expected utilization of an urban distribution grid under high penetration of photovoltaic and e-mobility with charging infrastructure on a residential level. The grid utilization and the corresponding power flow are evaluated, while varying the control strategies and photovoltaic installed capacity in different scenarios. Four scenarios are used to analyze the impact of e-mobility. The individual mobility demand is modelled based on the largest German studies on mobility “Mobilität in Deutschland”, which is carried out every 5 years. To estimate the ramp-up of photovoltaic generation, a potential analysis of the roof surfaces in the supply area is carried out via an evaluation of an open solar potential study. The photovoltaic feed-in time series is derived individually for each installed system in a resolution of 15 min. The residential consumption is estimated using historical smart meter data, which are collected in London between 2012 and 2014. For a realistic charging demand, each residential household decides daily on the state of charge if their vehicle requires to be charged. The resulting charging time series depends on the underlying behavior scenario. Market prices and mobility demand are therefore used as scenario input parameters for a utility function based on the current state of charge to model individual behavior. The aggregated electricity demand is the starting point of the power flow calculation. The evaluation is carried out for an urban region with approximately 3100 residents. The analysis shows that increased penetration of photovoltaics combined with a flexible and adaptive charging strategy can maximize PV usage and reduce the need for congestion-related intervention by the grid operator by reducing the amount of kWh charged from the grid by 30% which reduces the average price of a charged kWh by 35% to 14 ct/kWh from 21.8 ct/kWh without PV optimization. The resulting grid congestions are managed by implementing an intelligent price or control signal. The analysis took place using data from a real German grid with 10 subgrids. The entire software can be adapted for the analysis of different distribution grids and is publicly available as an open-source software library on GitHub.

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Author:Florian MaurerORCiD, Christian Rieke, Ralf Schemm, Dominik StollenwerkORCiD
Parent Title (English):Energies
Place of publication:Basel
Document Type:Article
Year of Completion:2023
Date of first Publication:2023/04/12
Date of the Publication (Server):2023/04/12
Tag:distribution grid simulation; e-mobility; smart-charging
Length:18 Seiten
This article belongs to the Special Issue "Advanced Solutions for the Efficient Integration of Electric Vehicles in Electricity Grids"
Corresponding author: Florian Maurer
Link: https://doi.org/10.3390/en16083380
Institutes:FH Aachen / Fachbereich Energietechnik
FH Aachen / Nowum-Energy
open_access (DINI-Set):open_access
collections:Verlag / MDPI
Open Access / Gold
Geförderte OA-Publikationen / Publikationsfonds
Licence (German): Creative Commons - Namensnennung