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The propagation of mechanical waves in plates of isotropic elastic material is investigated. After a short introduction to the understanding of focussing of stress waves in a plate with a curved boundary the method of characteristics is applied to a plate of hyperelastic material. Using this method the propagation of acceleration waves is discussed. Based on this a numerical difference scheme is developed for solving initial-boundary-value problems and applied to two examples: propagation of a point disturbance in a homogeneously finitely strained non-linear elastic plate and geometrical focussing in al linear elastic plate.

Shock waves, explosions, impacts or cavitation bubble collapses may generate stress waves in solids causing cracks or unexpected dammage due to focussing, physical nonlinearity or interaction with existing cracks. There is a growing interest in wave propagation, which poses many novel problems to experimentalists and theorists.

The nonlinear scalar constitutive equations of gases lead to a change in sound speed from point to point as would be found in linear inhomogeneous (and time dependent) media. The nonlinear tensor constitutive equations of solids introduce the additional local effect of solution dependent anisotropy. The speed of a wave passing through a point changes with propagation direction and its rays are inclined to the front. It is an open question whether the widely used operator splitting techniques achieve a dimensional splitting with physically reasonable results for these multi-dimensional problems. May be this is the main reason why the theoretical and numerical investigations of multi-dimensional wave propagation in nonlinear solids are so far behind gas dynamics. We hope to promote the subject a little by a discussion of some fundamental aspects of the solution of the equations of nonlinear elastodynamics. We use methods of characteristics because they only integrate mathematically exact equations which have a direct physical interpretation.

Reliability of the Primary Circuit Pressure Boundary of an HTR-Module under Accident Conditions
(1993)

Sensitivity of and Influences on the Reliability of an HTR-Module Primary Circuit Pressure Boundary
(1993)

Limit and shakedown theorems are exact theories of classical plasticity for the direct computation of safety factors or of the load carrying capacity under constant and varying loads. Simple versions of limit and shakedown analysis are the basis of all design codes for pressure vessels and pipings. Using Finite Element Methods more realistic modeling can be used for a more rational design. The methods can be extended to yield optimum plastic design. In this paper we present a first implementation in FE of limit and shakedown analyses for perfectly plastic material. Limit and shakedown analyses are done of a pipe–junction and a interaction diagram is calculated. The results are in good correspondence with the analytic solution we give in the appendix.

The structural reliability with respect to plastic collapse or to inadaptation is formulated on the basis of the lower bound limit and shakedown theorems. A direct definition of the limit state function is achieved which permits the use of the highly effective first order reliability methods (FORM) is achieved. The theorems are implemented into a general purpose FEM program in a way capable of large-scale analysis. The limit state function and its gradient are obtained from a mathematical optimization problem. This direct approach reduces considerably the necessary knowledge of uncertain technological input data, the computing time, and the numerical error, leading to highly effective and precise reliability analyses.

Abstracts of the ACHEMA 2000 - International Meeting on Chemical Engineering, Environmental Protection and Biotechnology, May 22 - 27, 2000. Frankfurt am Main. Achema 2000 : special edition / Linde. [Ed.: Linde AG. Red.: Volker R. Leski]. - Wiesbaden : Linde AG, 2000. - 56 p. : Ill., . - pp: 79 - 81

Limit and shakedown analysis are effective methods for assessing the load carrying capacity of a given structure. The elasto–plastic behavior of the structure subjected to loads varying in a given load domain is characterized by the shakedown load factor, defined as the maximum factor which satisfies the sufficient conditions stated in the corresponding static shakedown theorem. The finite element dicretization of the problem may lead to very large convex optimization. For the effective solution a basis reduction method has been developed that makes use of the special problem structure for perfectly plastic material. The paper proposes a modified basis reduction method for direct application to the two-surface plasticity model of bounded kinematic hardening material. The considered numerical examples show an enlargement of the load carrying capacity due to bounded hardening.

Safety and reliability of structures may be assessed indirectly by stress distributions. Limit and shakedown theorems are simplified but exact methods of plasticity that provide safety factors directly in the loading space. These theorems may be used for a direct definition of the limit state function for failure by plastic collapse or by inadaptation. In a FEM formulation the limit state function is obtained from a nonlinear optimization problem. This direct approach reduces considerably the necessary knowledge of uncertain technological input data, the computing time, and the numerical error. Moreover, the direct way leads to highly effective and precise reliability analyses. The theorems are implemented into a general purpose FEM program in a way capable of large-scale analysis.

Limit Analysis of Defects
(2000)

The load-carrying capacity or the safety against plastic limit states are the central questions in the design of structures and passive components in the apparatus engineering. A precise answer is most simply given by limit and shakedown analysis. These methods can be based on static and kinematic theorems for lower and upper bound analysis. Both may be formulated as optimization problems for finite element discretizations of structures. The problems of large-scale analysis and the extension towards realistic material modelling will be solved in a European research project. Limit and shakedown analyses are briefly demonstrated with illustrative examples.

Fatigue analyses are conducted with the aim of verifying that thermal ratcheting is limited. To this end it is important to make a clear distintion between the shakedown range and the ratcheting range (continuing deformation). As part of an EU-supported research project, experiments were carried out using a 4-bar model. The experiment comprised a water-cooled internal tube, and three insulated heatable outer test bars. The system was subjected to alternating axial forces, superimposed with alternating temperatures at the outer bars. The test parameters were partly selected on the basis of previous shakedown analyses. During the test, temperatures and strains were measured as a function of time. The loads and the resulting stresses were confirmed on an ongoing basis during performance of the test, and after it. Different material models were applied for this incremental elasto-plastic analysis using the ANSYS program. The results of the simulation are used to verify the FEM-based shakedown analysis.

Structural design analyses are conducted with the aim of verifying the exclusion of ratcheting. To this end it is important to make a clear distinction between the shakedown range and the ratcheting range. In cyclic plasticity more sophisticated hardening models have been suggested in order to model the strain evolution observed in ratcheting experiments. The hardening models used in shakedown analysis are comparatively simple. It is shown that shakedown analysis can make quite stable predictions of admissible load ranges despite the simplicity of the underlying hardening models. A linear and a nonlinear kinematic hardening model of two-surface plasticity are compared in material shakedown analysis. Both give identical or similar shakedown ranges. Structural shakedown analyses show that the loading may have a more pronounced effect than the hardening model.

Structural design analyses are conducted with the aim of verifying the exclusion of ratchetting. To this end it is important to make a clear distinction between the shakedown range and the ratchetting range. The performed experiment comprised a hollow tension specimen which was subjected to alternating axial forces, superimposed with constant moments. First, a series of uniaxial tests has been carried out in order to calibrate a bounded kinematic hardening rule. The load parameters have been selected on the basis of previous shakedown analyses with the PERMAS code using a kinematic hardening material model. It is shown that this shakedown analysis gives reasonable agreement between the experimental and the numerical results. A linear and a nonlinear kinematic hardening model of two-surface plasticity are compared in material shakedown analysis.

This paper presents the direct route to Design by Analysis (DBA) of the new European pressure vessel standard in the language of limit and shakedown analysis (LISA). This approach leads to an optimization problem. Its solution with Finite Element Analysis is demonstrated for some examples from the DBA-Manual. One observation from the examples is, that the optimisation approach gives reliable and close lower bound solutions leading to simple and optimised design decision.

Numerical methods for limit and shakedown analysis. Deterministic and probabilistic problems.
(2003)

An optimization method is developed to describe the mechanical behaviour of the human cancellous bone. The method is based on a mixture theory. A careful observation of the behaviour of the bone material leads to the hypothesis that the bone density is controlled by the principal stress trajectories (Wolff’s law). The basic idea of the developed method is the coupling of a scalar value via an eigenvalue problem to the principal stress trajectories. On the one hand this theory will permit a prediction of the reaction of the biological bone structure after the implantation of a prosthesis, on the other hand it may be useful in engineering optimization problems. An analytical example shows its efficiency.

This work is an attempt to answer the question: How to use convex programming in shakedown analysis of structures made of materials with temperature-dependent properties. Based on recently established shakedown theorems and formulations, a dual relationship between upper and lower bounds of the shakedown limit load is found, an algorithmfor shakedown analysis is proposed. While the original problem is neither convex nor concave, the algorithm presented here has the advantage of employing convex programming tools.

Improved collapse loads of thick-walled, crack containing pipes and vessels are suggested. Very deep cracks have a residual strength which is better modelled by a global limit load. In all burst tests, the ductility of pressure vessel steels was sufficiently high whereby the burst pressure could be predicted by limit analysis with no need to apply fracture mechanics. The relative prognosis error increases however, for long and deep defects due to uncertainties of geometry and strength data.

Limit loads can be calculated with the finite element method (FEM) for any component, defect geometry, and loading. FEM suggests that published long crack limit formulae for axial defects under-estimate the burst pressure for internal surface defects in thick pipes while limit loads are not conservative for deep cracks and for pressure loaded crack-faces. Very deep cracks have a residual strength, which is modelled by a global collapse load. These observations are combined to derive new analytical local and global collapse loads. The global collapse loads are close to FEM limit analyses for all crack dimensions.

In the new European standard for unfired pressure vessels, EN 13445-3, there are two approaches for carrying out a Design-by-Analysis that cover both the stress categorization method (Annex C) and the direct route method (Annex B) for a check against global plastic deformation and against progressive plastic deformation. This paper presents the direct route in the language of limit and shakedown analysis. This approach leads to an optimization problem. Its solution with Finite Element Analysis is demonstrated for mechanical and thermal actions. One observation from the examples is that the so-called 3f (3Sm) criterion fails to be a reliable check against progressive plastic deformation. Precise conditions are given, which greatly restrict the applicability of the 3f criterion.

Limit loads of circumferentially flawed pipes and cylindrical vessels under internal pressure
(2006)

In: Technical feasibility and reliability of passive safety systems for nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an Advisory Group Meeting held in Jülich, 21-24 November 1994. - Vienna , 1996. - Seite: 43 - 55 IAEA-TECDOC-920 Abstract: It is shown that the difficulty for probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) is the general problem of the high reliability of a small population. There is no way around the problem as yet. Therefore what PFM can contribute to the reliability of steel pressure boundaries is demonstrated with the example of a typical reactor pressure vessel and critically discussed. Although no method is distinguishable that could give exact failure probabilities, PFM has several additional chances. Upper limits for failure probability may be obtained together with trends for design and operating conditions. Further, PFM can identify the most sensitive parameters, improved control of which would increase reliability. Thus PFM should play a vital role in the analysis of steel pressure boundaries despite all shortcomings.

Proceedings of the International Conference on Material Theory and Nonlinear Dynamics. MatDyn. Hanoi, Vietnam, Sept. 24-26, 2007, 8 p. In this paper, a method is introduced to determine the limit load of general shells using the finite element method. The method is based on an upper bound limit and shakedown analysis with elastic-perfectly plastic material model. A non-linear constrained optimisation problem is solved by using Newton’s method in conjunction with a penalty method and the Lagrangean dual method. Numerical investigation of a pipe bend subjected to bending moments proves the effectiveness of the algorithm.