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In: Technical feasibility and reliability of passive safety systems for nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an Advisory Group Meeting held in Jülich, 21-24 November 1994. - Vienna , 1996. - Seite: 43 - 55 IAEA-TECDOC-920 Abstract: It is shown that the difficulty for probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) is the general problem of the high reliability of a small population. There is no way around the problem as yet. Therefore what PFM can contribute to the reliability of steel pressure boundaries is demonstrated with the example of a typical reactor pressure vessel and critically discussed. Although no method is distinguishable that could give exact failure probabilities, PFM has several additional chances. Upper limits for failure probability may be obtained together with trends for design and operating conditions. Further, PFM can identify the most sensitive parameters, improved control of which would increase reliability. Thus PFM should play a vital role in the analysis of steel pressure boundaries despite all shortcomings.

Cement augmentation is an emerging surgical procedure in which bone cement is used to infiltrate and reinforce osteoporotic vertebrae. Although this infiltration procedure has been widely applied, it is performed empirically and little is known about the flow characteristics of cement during the injection process. We present a theoretical and experimental approach to investigate the intertrabecular bone permeability during the infiltration procedure. The cement permeability was considered to be dependent on time, bone porosity, and cement viscosity in our analysis. In order to determine the time-dependent permeability, ten cancellous bone cores were harvested from osteoporotic vertebrae, infiltrated with acrylic cement at a constant flow rate, and the pressure drop across the cores during the infiltration was measured. The viscosity dependence of the permeability was determined based on published experimental data. The theoretical model for the permeability as a function of bone porosity and time was then fit to the testing data. Our findings suggest that the intertrabecular bone permeability depends strongly on time. For instance, the initial permeability (60.89 mm4/N.s) reduced to approximately 63% of its original value within 18 seconds. This study is the first to analyze cement flow through osteoporotic bone. The theoretical and experimental models provided in this paper are generic. Thus, they can be used to systematically study and optimize the infiltration process for clinical practice.

An optimization method is developed to describe the mechanical behaviour of the human cancellous bone. The method is based on a mixture theory. A careful observation of the behaviour of the bone material leads to the hypothesis that the bone density is controlled by the principal stress trajectories (Wolff’s law). The basic idea of the developed method is the coupling of a scalar value via an eigenvalue problem to the principal stress trajectories. On the one hand this theory will permit a prediction of the reaction of the biological bone structure after the implantation of a prosthesis, on the other hand it may be useful in engineering optimization problems. An analytical example shows its efficiency.

This work is an attempt to answer the question: How to use convex programming in shakedown analysis of structures made of materials with temperature-dependent properties. Based on recently established shakedown theorems and formulations, a dual relationship between upper and lower bounds of the shakedown limit load is found, an algorithmfor shakedown analysis is proposed. While the original problem is neither convex nor concave, the algorithm presented here has the advantage of employing convex programming tools.

This paper presents the direct route to Design by Analysis (DBA) of the new European pressure vessel standard in the language of limit and shakedown analysis (LISA). This approach leads to an optimization problem. Its solution with Finite Element Analysis is demonstrated for some examples from the DBA-Manual. One observation from the examples is, that the optimisation approach gives reliable and close lower bound solutions leading to simple and optimised design decision.

Structural design analyses are conducted with the aim of verifying the exclusion of ratchetting. To this end it is important to make a clear distinction between the shakedown range and the ratchetting range. The performed experiment comprised a hollow tension specimen which was subjected to alternating axial forces, superimposed with constant moments. First, a series of uniaxial tests has been carried out in order to calibrate a bounded kinematic hardening rule. The load parameters have been selected on the basis of previous shakedown analyses with the PERMAS code using a kinematic hardening material model. It is shown that this shakedown analysis gives reasonable agreement between the experimental and the numerical results. A linear and a nonlinear kinematic hardening model of two-surface plasticity are compared in material shakedown analysis.

In the new European standard for unfired pressure vessels, EN 13445-3, there are two approaches for carrying out a Design-by-Analysis that cover both the stress categorization method (Annex C) and the direct route method (Annex B) for a check against global plastic deformation and against progressive plastic deformation. This paper presents the direct route in the language of limit and shakedown analysis. This approach leads to an optimization problem. Its solution with Finite Element Analysis is demonstrated for mechanical and thermal actions. One observation from the examples is that the so-called 3f (3Sm) criterion fails to be a reliable check against progressive plastic deformation. Precise conditions are given, which greatly restrict the applicability of the 3f criterion.