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Direct methods comprising limit and shakedown analysis is a branch of computational mechanics. It plays a significant role in mechanical and civil engineering design. The concept of direct method aims to determinate the ultimate load bearing capacity of structures beyond the elastic range. For practical problems, the direct methods lead to nonlinear convex optimization problems with a large number of variables and onstraints. If strength and loading are random quantities, the problem of shakedown analysis is considered as stochastic programming. This paper presents a method so called chance constrained programming, an effective method of stochastic programming, to solve shakedown analysis problem under random condition of strength. In this our investigation, the loading is deterministic, the strength is distributed as normal or lognormal variables.

FEM shakedown analysis of structures under random strength with chance constrained programming
(2022)

Direct methods, comprising limit and shakedown analysis, are a branch of computational mechanics. They play a significant role in mechanical and civil engineering design. The concept of direct methods aims to determine the ultimate load carrying capacity of structures beyond the elastic range. In practical problems, the direct methods lead to nonlinear convex optimization problems with a large number of variables and constraints. If strength and loading are random quantities, the shakedown analysis can be formulated as stochastic programming problem. In this paper, a method called chance constrained programming is presented, which is an effective method of stochastic programming to solve shakedown analysis problems under random conditions of strength. In this study, the loading is deterministic, and the strength is a normally or lognormally distributed variable.

We propose a stochastic programming method to analyse limit and shakedown of structures under random strength with lognormal distribution. In this investigation a dual chance constrained programming algorithm is developed to calculate simultaneously both the upper and lower bounds of the plastic collapse limit or the shakedown limit. The edge-based smoothed finite element method (ES-FEM) using three-node linear triangular elements is used.

We propose the so-called chance constrained programming model of stochastic programming theory to analyze limit and shakedown loads of structures under random strength with a lognormal distribution. A dual chance constrained programming algorithm is developed to calculate simultaneously both the upper and lower bounds of the plastic collapse limit and the shakedown limit. The edge-based smoothed finite element method (ES-FEM) is used with three-node linear triangular elements.

A new formulation to calculate the shakedown limit load of Kirchhoff plates under stochastic conditions of strength is developed. Direct structural reliability design by chance con-strained programming is based on the prescribed failure probabilities, which is an effective approach of stochastic programming if it can be formulated as an equivalent deterministic optimization problem. We restrict uncertainty to strength, the loading is still deterministic. A new formulation is derived in case of random strength with lognormal distribution. Upper bound and lower bound shakedown load factors are calculated simultaneously by a dual algorithm.

When confining pressure is low or absent, extensional fractures are typical, with fractures occurring on unloaded planes in rock. These “paradox” fractures can be explained by a phenomenological extension strain failure criterion. In the past, a simple empirical criterion for fracture initiation in brittle rock has been developed. But this criterion makes unrealistic strength predictions in biaxial compression and tension. A new extension strain criterion overcomes this limitation by adding a weighted principal shear component. The weight is chosen, such that the enriched extension strain criterion represents the same failure surface as the Mohr–Coulomb (MC) criterion. Thus, the MC criterion has been derived as an extension strain criterion predicting failure modes, which are unexpected in the understanding of the failure of cohesive-frictional materials. In progressive damage of rock, the most likely fracture direction is orthogonal to the maximum extension strain. The enriched extension strain criterion is proposed as a threshold surface for crack initiation CI and crack damage CD and as a failure surface at peak P. Examples show that the enriched extension strain criterion predicts much lower volumes of damaged rock mass compared to the simple extension strain criterion.