## Fachbereich Medizintechnik und Technomathematik

### Refine

#### Year of publication

#### Institute

- Fachbereich Medizintechnik und Technomathematik (2071)
- IfB - Institut für Bioengineering (531)
- INB - Institut für Nano- und Biotechnologien (526)
- Fachbereich Chemie und Biotechnologie (37)
- Fachbereich Energietechnik (7)
- Fachbereich Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik (6)
- Nowum-Energy (6)
- Fachbereich Wirtschaftswissenschaften (3)
- Institut fuer Angewandte Polymerchemie (3)
- Fachbereich Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik (2)

#### Document Type

- Article (1590)
- Conference Proceeding (241)
- Book (96)
- Part of a Book (62)
- Doctoral Thesis (27)
- Patent (17)
- Report (15)
- Other (9)
- Habilitation (4)
- Lecture (3)

#### Keywords

- Biosensor (25)
- Finite-Elemente-Methode (16)
- CAD (15)
- civil engineering (14)
- Bauingenieurwesen (13)
- Einspielen <Werkstoff> (13)
- shakedown analysis (9)
- FEM (6)
- Limit analysis (6)
- Shakedown analysis (6)

Elastic transmission eigenvalues and their computation via the method of fundamental solutions
(2020)

A stabilized version of the fundamental solution method to catch ill-conditioning effects is investigated with focus on the computation of complex-valued elastic interior transmission eigenvalues in two dimensions for homogeneous and isotropic media. Its algorithm can be implemented very shortly and adopts to many similar partial differential equation-based eigenproblems as long as the underlying fundamental solution function can be easily generated. We develop a corroborative approximation analysis which also implicates new basic results for transmission eigenfunctions and present some numerical examples which together prove successful feasibility of our eigenvalue recovery approach.

We present new numerical results for shape optimization problems of interior Neumann eigenvalues. This field is not well understood from a theoretical standpoint. The existence of shape maximizers is not proven beyond the first two eigenvalues, so we study the problem numerically. We describe a method to compute the eigenvalues for a given shape that combines the boundary element method with an algorithm for nonlinear eigenvalues. As numerical optimization requires many such evaluations, we put a focus on the efficiency of the method and the implemented routine. The method is well suited for parallelization. Using the resulting fast routines and a specialized parametrization of the shapes, we found improved maxima for several eigenvalues.

The method of fundamental solutions is applied to the approximate computation of interior transmission eigenvalues for a special class of inhomogeneous media in two dimensions. We give a short approximation analysis accompanied with numerical results that clearly prove practical convenience of our alternative approach.

Mathematical morphology is a part of image processing that has proven to be fruitful for numerous applications. Two main operations in mathematical morphology are dilation and erosion. These are based on the construction of a supremum or infimum with respect to an order over the tonal range in a certain section of the image. The tonal ordering can easily be realised in grey-scale morphology, and some morphological methods have been proposed for colour morphology. However, all of these have certain limitations.
In this paper we present a novel approach to colour morphology extending upon previous work in the field based on the Loewner order. We propose to consider an approximation of the supremum by means of a log-sum exponentiation introduced by Maslov. We apply this to the embedding of an RGB image in a field of symmetric 2x2 matrices. In this way we obtain nearly isotropic matrices representing colours and the structural advantage of transitivity. In numerical experiments we highlight some remarkable properties of the proposed approach.

Direct sampling method via Landweber iteration for an absorbing scatterer with a conductive boundary
(2024)

In this paper, we consider the inverse shape problem of recovering isotropic scatterers with a conductive boundary condition. Here, we assume that the measured far-field data is known at a fixed wave number. Motivated by recent work, we study a new direct sampling indicator based on the Landweber iteration and the factorization method. Therefore, we prove the connection between these reconstruction methods. The method studied here falls under the category of qualitative reconstruction methods where an imaging function is used to recover the absorbing scatterer. We prove stability of our new imaging function as well as derive a discrepancy principle for recovering the regularization parameter. The theoretical results are verified with numerical examples to show how the reconstruction performs by the new Landweber direct sampling method.

We consider the numerical approximation of second-order semi-linear parabolic stochastic partial differential equations interpreted in the mild sense which we solve on general two-dimensional domains with a C² boundary with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. The equations are driven by Gaussian additive noise, and several Lipschitz-like conditions are imposed on the nonlinear function. We discretize in space with a spectral Galerkin method and in time using an explicit Euler-like scheme. For irregular shapes, the necessary Dirichlet eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are obtained from a boundary integral equation method. This yields a nonlinear eigenvalue problem, which is discretized using a boundary element collocation method and is solved with the Beyn contour integral algorithm. We present an error analysis as well as numerical results on an exemplary asymmetric shape, and point out limitations of the approach.

Analysis and computation of the transmission eigenvalues with a conductive boundary condition
(2022)

We provide a new analytical and computational study of the transmission eigenvalues with a conductive boundary condition. These eigenvalues are derived from the scalar inverse scattering problem for an inhomogeneous material with a conductive boundary condition. The goal is to study how these eigenvalues depend on the material parameters in order to estimate the refractive index. The analytical questions we study are: deriving Faber–Krahn type lower bounds, the discreteness and limiting behavior of the transmission eigenvalues as the conductivity tends to infinity for a sign changing contrast. We also provide a numerical study of a new boundary integral equation for computing the eigenvalues. Lastly, using the limiting behavior we will numerically estimate the refractive index from the eigenvalues provided the conductivity is sufficiently large but unknown.

Fields of asymmetric tensors play an important role in many applications such as medical imaging (diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging), physics, and civil engineering (for example Cauchy-Green-deformation tensor, strain tensor with local rotations, etc.). However, such asymmetric tensors are usually symmetrized and then further processed. Using this procedure results in a loss of information. A new method for the processing of asymmetric tensor fields is proposed restricting our attention to tensors of second-order given by a 2x2 array or matrix with real entries. This is achieved by a transformation resulting in Hermitian matrices that have an eigendecomposition similar to symmetric matrices. With this new idea numerical results for real-world data arising from a deformation of an object by external forces are given. It is shown that the asymmetric part indeed contains valuable information.

An alternative method is presented to numerically compute interior elastic transmission eigenvalues for various domains in two dimensions. This is achieved by discretizing the resulting system of boundary integral equations in combination with a nonlinear eigenvalue solver. Numerical results are given to show that this new approach can provide better results than the finite element method when dealing with general domains.

The hot spots conjecture is only known to be true for special geometries. This paper shows numerically that the hot spots conjecture can fail to be true for easy to construct bounded domains with one hole. The underlying eigenvalue problem for the Laplace equation with Neumann boundary condition is solved with boundary integral equations yielding a non-linear eigenvalue problem. Its discretization via the boundary element collocation method in combination with the algorithm by Beyn yields highly accurate results both for the first non-zero eigenvalue and its corresponding eigenfunction which is due to superconvergence. Additionally, it can be shown numerically that the ratio between the maximal/minimal value inside the domain and its maximal/minimal value on the boundary can be larger than 1 + 10− 3. Finally, numerical examples for easy to construct domains with up to five holes are provided which fail the hot spots conjecture as well.

There is a very large number of very important situations which can be modeled with nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs) in several dimensions. In general, these PDEs can be solved by discretizing in the spatial variables and transforming them into huge systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which are very stiff. Therefore, standard explicit methods require a large number of iterations to solve stiff problems. But implicit schemes are computationally very expensive when solving huge systems of nonlinear ODEs. Several families of Extrapolated Stabilized Explicit Runge-Kutta schemes (ESERK) with different order of accuracy (3 to 6) are derived and analyzed in this work. They are explicit methods, with stability regions extended, along the negative real semi-axis, quadratically with respect to the number of stages s, hence they can be considered to solve stiff problems much faster than traditional explicit schemes. Additionally, they allow the adaptation of the step length easily with a very small cost.
Two new families of ESERK schemes (ESERK3 and ESERK6) are derived, and analyzed, in this work. Each family has more than 50 new schemes, with up to 84.000 stages in the case of ESERK6. For the first time, we also parallelized all these new variable step length and variable number of stages algorithms (ESERK3, ESERK4, ESERK5, and ESERK6). These parallelized strategies allow to decrease times significantly, as it is discussed and also shown numerically in two problems. Thus, the new codes provide very good results compared to other well-known ODE solvers. Finally, a new strategy is proposed to increase the efficiency of these schemes, and it is discussed the idea of combining ESERK families in one code, because typically, stiff problems have different zones and according to them and the requested tolerance the optimum order of convergence is different.

Interior transmission eigenvalue problems for the Helmholtz equation play an important role in inverse wave scattering. Some distribution properties of those eigenvalues in the complex plane are reviewed. Further, a new scattering model for the interior transmission eigenvalue problem with mixed boundary conditions is described and an efficient algorithm for computing the interior transmission eigenvalues is proposed. Finally, extensive numerical results for a variety of two-dimensional scatterers are presented to show the validity of the proposed scheme.

A second-order L-stable exponential time-differencing (ETD) method is developed by combining an ETD scheme with approximating the matrix exponentials by rational functions having real distinct poles (RDP), together with a dimensional splitting integrating factor technique. A variety of non-linear reaction-diffusion equations in two and three dimensions with either Dirichlet, Neumann, or periodic boundary conditions are solved with this scheme and shown to outperform a variety of other second-order implicit-explicit schemes. An additional performance boost is gained through further use of basic parallelization techniques.

In this article, a concept of implicit methods for scalar conservation laws in one or more spatial dimensions allowing also for source terms of various types is presented. This material is a significant extension of previous work of the first author (Breuß SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 43(3), 970–986 2005). Implicit notions are developed that are centered around a monotonicity criterion. We demonstrate a connection between a numerical scheme and a discrete entropy inequality, which is based on a classical approach by Crandall and Majda. Additionally, three implicit methods are investigated using the developed notions. Next, we conduct a convergence proof which is not based on a classical compactness argument. Finally, the theoretical results are confirmed by various numerical tests.

The inverse scattering problem for a conductive boundary condition and transmission eigenvalues
(2018)

In this paper, we consider the inverse scattering problem associated with an inhomogeneous media with a conductive boundary. In particular, we are interested in two problems that arise from this inverse problem: the inverse conductivity problem and the corresponding interior transmission eigenvalue problem. The inverse conductivity problem is to recover the conductive boundary parameter from the measured scattering data. We prove that the measured scatted data uniquely determine the conductivity parameter as well as describe a direct algorithm to recover the conductivity. The interior transmission eigenvalue problem is an eigenvalue problem associated with the inverse scattering of such materials. We investigate the convergence of the eigenvalues as the conductivity parameter tends to zero as well as prove existence and discreteness for the case of an absorbing media. Lastly, several numerical and analytical results support the theory and we show that the inside–outside duality method can be used to reconstruct the interior conductive eigenvalues.

Das Diskussionspapier beschreibt einen Prozess an der FH Aachen zur Entwicklung und Implementierung eines Self-Assessment-Tools für Studiengänge. Dieser Prozess zielte darauf ab, die Relevanz der Themen Digitalisierung, Internationalisierung und Nachhaltigkeit in Studiengängen zu stärken. Durch Workshops und kollaborative Entwicklung mit Studiendekan:innen entstand ein Fragebogen, der zur Reflexion und strategischen Weiterentwicklung der Studiengänge dient.

In this work, we present a compact, bifunctional chip-based sensor setup that measures the temperature and electrical conductivity of water samples, including specimens from rivers and channels, aquaculture, and the Atlantic Ocean. For conductivity measurements, we utilize the impedance amplitude recorded via interdigitated electrode structures at a single triggering frequency. The results are well in line with data obtained using a calibrated reference instrument. The new setup holds for conductivity values spanning almost two orders of magnitude (river versus ocean water) without the need for equivalent circuit modelling. Temperature measurements were performed in four-point geometry with an on-chip platinum RTD (resistance temperature detector) in the temperature range between 2 °C and 40 °C, showing no hysteresis effects between warming and cooling cycles. Although the meander was not shielded against the liquid, the temperature calibration provided equivalent results to low conductive Milli-Q and highly conductive ocean water. The sensor is therefore suitable for inline and online monitoring purposes in recirculating aquaculture systems.

As one class of molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs), surface imprinted polymer (SIP)-based biosensors show great potential in direct whole-bacteria detection. Micro-contact imprinting, that involves stamping the template bacteria immobilized on a substrate into a pre-polymerized polymer matrix, is the most straightforward and prominent method to obtain SIP-based biosensors. However, the major drawbacks of the method arise from the requirement for fresh template bacteria and often non-reproducible bacteria distribution on the stamp substrate. Herein, we developed a positive master stamp containing photolithographic mimics of the template bacteria (E. coli) enabling reproducible fabrication of biomimetic SIP-based biosensors without the need for the “real” bacteria cells. By using atomic force and scanning electron microscopy imaging techniques, respectively, the E. coli-capturing ability of the SIP samples was tested, and compared with non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-based samples and control SIP samples, in which the cavity geometry does not match with E. coli cells. It was revealed that the presence of the biomimetic E. coli imprints with a specifically designed geometry increases the sensor E. coli-capturing ability by an “imprinting factor” of about 3. These findings show the importance of geometry-guided physical recognition in bacterial detection using SIP-based biosensors. In addition, this imprinting strategy was employed to interdigitated electrodes and QCM (quartz crystal microbalance) chips. E. coli detection performance of the sensors was demonstrated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and QCM measurements with dissipation monitoring technique (QCM-D).

Electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor capacitors (EISCAP) belong to field-effect sensors having an attractive transducer architecture for constructing various biochemical sensors. In this study, a capacitive model of enzyme-modified EISCAPs has been developed and the impact of the surface coverage of immobilized enzymes on its capacitance-voltage and constant-capacitance characteristics was studied theoretically and experimentally. The used multicell arrangement enables a multiplexed electrochemical characterization of up to sixteen EISCAPs. Different enzyme coverages have been achieved by means of parallel electrical connection of bare and enzyme-covered single EISCAPs in diverse combinations. As predicted by the model, with increasing the enzyme coverage, both the shift of capacitance-voltage curves and the amplitude of the constant-capacitance signal increase, resulting in an enhancement of analyte sensitivity of the EISCAP biosensor. In addition, the capability of the multicell arrangement with multi-enzyme covered EISCAPs for sequentially detecting multianalytes (penicillin and urea) utilizing the enzymes penicillinase and urease has been experimentally demonstrated and discussed.