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Limit loads can be calculated with the finite element method (FEM) for any component, defect geometry, and loading. FEM suggests that published long crack limit formulae for axial defects under-estimate the burst pressure for internal surface defects in thick pipes while limit loads are not conservative for deep cracks and for pressure loaded crack-faces. Very deep cracks have a residual strength, which is modelled by a global collapse load. These observations are combined to derive new analytical local and global collapse loads. The global collapse loads are close to FEM limit analyses for all crack dimensions.

The load-carrying capacity or the safety against plastic limit states are the central questions in the design of structures and passive components in the apparatus engineering. A precise answer is most simply given by limit and shakedown analysis. These methods can be based on static and kinematic theorems for lower and upper bound analysis. Both may be formulated as optimization problems for finite element discretizations of structures. The problems of large-scale analysis and the extension towards realistic material modelling will be solved in a European research project. Limit and shakedown analyses are briefly demonstrated with illustrative examples.

7th International Conference on Reliability of Materials and Structures (RELMAS 2008). June 17 - 20, 2008 ; Saint Petersburg, Russia. pp 354-358. Reprint with corrections in red Introduction Analysis of advanced structures working under extreme heavy loading such as nuclear power plants and piping system should take into account the randomness of loading, geometrical and material parameters. The existing reliability are restricted mostly to the elastic working regime, e.g. allowable local stresses. Development of the limit and shakedown reliability-based analysis and design methods, exploiting potential of the shakedown working regime, is highly needed. In this paper the application of a new algorithm of probabilistic limit and shakedown analysis for shell structures is presented, in which the loading and strength of the material as well as the thickness of the shell are considered as random variables. The reliability analysis problems may be efficiently solved by using a system combining the available FE codes, a deterministic limit and shakedown analysis, and the First and Second Order Reliability Methods (FORM/SORM). Non-linear sensitivity analyses are obtained directly from the solution of the deterministic problem without extra computational costs.

Limit and shakedown theorems are exact theories of classical plasticity for the direct computation of safety factors or of the load carrying capacity under constant and varying loads. Simple versions of limit and shakedown analysis are the basis of all design codes for pressure vessels and pipings. Using Finite Element Methods more realistic modeling can be used for a more rational design. The methods can be extended to yield optimum plastic design. In this paper we present a first implementation in FE of limit and shakedown analyses for perfectly plastic material. Limit and shakedown analyses are done of a pipe–junction and a interaction diagram is calculated. The results are in good correspondence with the analytic solution we give in the appendix.

A procedure for the evaluation of the failure probability of elastic-plastic thin shell structures is presented. The procedure involves a deterministic limit and shakedown analysis for each probabilistic iteration which is based on the kinematical approach and the use the exact Ilyushin yield surface. Based on a direct definition of the limit state function, the non-linear problems may be efficiently solved by using the First and Second Order Reliabiblity Methods (Form/SORM). This direct approach reduces considerably the necessary knowledge of uncertain technological input data, computing costs and the numerical error. In: Computational plasticity / ed. by Eugenio Onate. Dordrecht: Springer 2007. VII, 265 S. (Computational Methods in Applied Sciences ; 7) (COMPLAS IX. Part 1 . International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE)). ISBN 978-1-402-06576-7 S. 186-189

Summary: This paper presents a methodology to study and understand the mechanics of stapled anastomotic behaviors by combining empirical experimentation and finite element analysis. Performance of stapled anastomosis is studied in terms of leakage and numerical results which are compared to in vitro experiments performed on fresh porcine tissue. Results suggest that leaks occur between the tissue and staple legs penetrating through the tissue.

The structural reliability with respect to plastic collapse or to inadaptation is formulated on the basis of the lower bound limit and shakedown theorems. A direct definition of the limit state function is achieved which permits the use of the highly effective first order reliability methods (FORM) is achieved. The theorems are implemented into a general purpose FEM program in a way capable of large-scale analysis. The limit state function and its gradient are obtained from a mathematical optimization problem. This direct approach reduces considerably the necessary knowledge of uncertain technological input data, the computing time, and the numerical error, leading to highly effective and precise reliability analyses.

Abstracts of the ACHEMA 2000 - International Meeting on Chemical Engineering, Environmental Protection and Biotechnology, May 22 - 27, 2000. Frankfurt am Main. Achema 2000 : special edition / Linde. [Ed.: Linde AG. Red.: Volker R. Leski]. - Wiesbaden : Linde AG, 2000. - 56 p. : Ill., . - pp: 79 - 81

Proceedings of the International Conference on Material Theory and Nonlinear Dynamics. MatDyn. Hanoi, Vietnam, Sept. 24-26, 2007, 8 p. In this paper, a method is introduced to determine the limit load of general shells using the finite element method. The method is based on an upper bound limit and shakedown analysis with elastic-perfectly plastic material model. A non-linear constrained optimisation problem is solved by using Newton’s method in conjunction with a penalty method and the Lagrangean dual method. Numerical investigation of a pipe bend subjected to bending moments proves the effectiveness of the algorithm.

Limit and shakedown analysis are effective methods for assessing the load carrying capacity of a given structure. The elasto–plastic behavior of the structure subjected to loads varying in a given load domain is characterized by the shakedown load factor, defined as the maximum factor which satisfies the sufficient conditions stated in the corresponding static shakedown theorem. The finite element dicretization of the problem may lead to very large convex optimization. For the effective solution a basis reduction method has been developed that makes use of the special problem structure for perfectly plastic material. The paper proposes a modified basis reduction method for direct application to the two-surface plasticity model of bounded kinematic hardening material. The considered numerical examples show an enlargement of the load carrying capacity due to bounded hardening.