### Refine

#### Document Type

- Conference Proceeding (7)
- Part of a Book (6)
- Article (5)

#### Keywords

- MINLP (4)
- Engineering optimization (3)
- Powertrain (3)
- Energy efficiency (2)
- Experimental validation (2)
- Optimization (2)
- Technical Operations Research (2)
- Water (2)
- BEV (1)
- Booster Stations (1)
- Buffering Capacity (1)
- Drinking Water Supply (1)
- Efficiency optimization (1)
- Gearbox (1)
- Global optimization (1)
- Latin Hypercube Sampling (1)
- MILP (1)
- Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Optimisation (1)
- Mixed-integer nonlinear programming (1)
- Network (1)

Finding a good system topology with more than a handful of components is a
highly non-trivial task. The system needs to be able to fulfil all expected load cases, but at the
same time the components should interact in an energy-efficient way. An example for a system
design problem is the layout of the drinking water supply of a residential building. It may be
reasonable to choose a design of spatially distributed pumps which are connected by pipes in at
least two dimensions. This leads to a large variety of possible system topologies. To solve such
problems in a reasonable time frame, the nonlinear technical characteristics must be modelled
as simple as possible, while still achieving a sufficiently good representation of reality. The
aim of this paper is to compare the speed and reliability of a selection of leading mathematical
programming solvers on a set of varying model formulations. This gives us empirical evidence
on what combinations of model formulations and solver packages are the means of choice with the current state of the art.

Successful optimization requires an appropriate model of the system under consideration. When selecting a suitable level of detail, one has to consider solution quality as well as the computational and implementation effort. In this paper, we present a MINLP for a pumping system for the drinking water supply of high-rise buildings. We investigate the influence of the granularity of the underlying physical models on the solution quality. Therefore, we model the system with a varying level of detail regarding the friction losses, and conduct an experimental validation of our model on a modular test rig. Furthermore, we investigate the computational effort and show that it can be reduced by the integration of domain-specific knowledge.

In order to maximize the possible travel distance of battery electric vehicles with one battery charge, it is mandatory to adjust all components of the powertrain carefully to each other. While current vehicle designs mostly simplify the powertrain rigorously and use an electric motor in combination with a gearbox with only one fixed transmission ratio, the use of multi-gear systems has great potential. First, a multi-speed system is able to improve the overall energy efficiency. Secondly, it is able to reduce the maximum momentum and therefore to reduce the maximum current provided by the traction battery, which results in a longer battery lifetime. In this paper, we present a systematic way to generate multi-gear gearbox designs that—combined with a certain electric motor—lead to the most efficient fulfillment of predefined load scenarios and are at the same time robust to uncertainties in the load. Therefore, we model the electric motor and the gearbox within a Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Program, and optimize the efficiency of the mechanical parts of the powertrain. By combining this mathematical optimization program with an unsupervised machine learning algorithm, we are able to derive global-optimal gearbox designs for practically relevant momentum and speed requirements.

The development of resilient technical systems is a challenging task, as the system should adapt automatically to unknown disturbances and component failures. To evaluate different approaches for deriving resilient technical system designs, we developed a modular test rig that is based on a pumping system. On the basis of this example
system, we present metrics to quantify resilience and an algorithmic approach to improve resilience. This approach enables the pumping system to automatically react on unknown disturbances and to reduce the impact of component failures. In this case, the system is able to automatically adapt its topology by activating additional valves. This enables the system to still reach a minimum performance, even in case of failures. Furthermore, timedependent disturbances are evaluated continuously, deviations from the original state are automatically detected and anticipated in the future. This allows to reduce the impact of future disturbances and leads to a more resilient
system behaviour.

The transition within transportation towards battery electric vehicles can lead to a more sustainable future. To account for the development goal ‘climate action’ stated by the United Nations, it is mandatory, within the conceptual design phase, to derive energy-efficient system designs. One barrier is the uncertainty of the driving behaviour within the usage phase. This uncertainty is often addressed by using a stochastic synthesis process to derive representative driving cycles and by using cycle-based optimization. To deal with this uncertainty, a new approach based on a stochastic optimization program is presented. This leads to an optimization model that is solved with an exact solver. It is compared to a system design approach based on driving cycles and a genetic algorithm solver. Both approaches are applied to find efficient electric powertrains with fixed-speed and multi-speed transmissions. Hence, the similarities, differences and respective advantages of each optimization procedure are discussed.

To increase pressure to supply all floors of high buildings with water, booster stations, normally consisting of several parallel pumps in the basement, are used. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of a decentralized pump topology regarding energy savings in water supply systems of skyscrapers. We present an approach, based on Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Programming, that allows to choose an optimal network topology and optimal pumps from a predefined construction kit comprising different pump types. Using domain-specific scaling laws and Latin Hypercube Sampling, we generate different input sets of pump types and compare their impact on the efficiency and cost of the total system design. As a realistic application example, we consider a hotel building with 325 rooms, 12 floors and up to four pressure zones.

The overall energy efficiency of ventilation systems can be improved by considering not only single components, but by considering as well the interplay between every part of the system. With the help of the method "TOR" ("Technical Operations Research"), which was developed at the Chair of Fluid Systems at TU Darmstadt, it is possible to improve the energy efficiency of the whole system by considering all possible design choices programmatically. We show the ability of this systematic design approach with a ventilation system for buildings as a use case example.
Based on a Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Program (MINLP) we model the ventilation system. We use binary variables to model the selection of different pipe diameters. Multiple fans are model with the help of scaling laws. The whole system is represented by a graph, where the edges represent the pipes and fans and the nodes represents the source of air for cooling and the sinks, that have to be cooled. At the beginning, the human designer chooses a construction kit of different suitable fans and pipes of different diameters and different load cases. These boundary conditions define a variety of different possible system topologies. It is not possible to consider all topologies by hand. With the help of state of the art solvers, on the other side, it is possible to solve this MINLP.
Next to this, we also consider the effects of malfunctions in different components. Therefore, we show a first approach to measure the resilience of the shown example use case. Further, we compare the conventional approach with designs that are more resilient. These more resilient designs are derived by extending the before mentioned model with further constraints, that consider explicitly the resilience of the overall system. We show that it is possible to design resilient systems with this method already in the early design stage and compare the energy efficiency and resilience of these different system designs.

The energy-efficiency of technical systems can be improved by a systematic design approach. Technical Operations Research (TOR) employs methods known from Operations Research to find a global optimal layout and operation strategy of technical systems. We show the practical usage of this approach by the systematic design of a decentralized water supply system for skyscrapers. All possible network options and operation strategies are modeled by a Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Program. We present the optimal system found by our approach and highlight the energy savings compared to a conventional system design.

To maximize the travel distances of battery electric vehicles such as cars or buses for a given amount of stored energy, their powertrains are optimized energetically. One key part within optimization models for electric powertrains is the efficiency map of the electric motor. The underlying function is usually highly nonlinear and nonconvex and leads to major challenges within a global optimization process. To enable faster solution times, one possibility is the usage of piecewise linearization techniques to approximate the nonlinear efficiency map with linear constraints. Therefore, we evaluate the influence of different piecewise linearization modeling techniques on the overall solution process and compare the solution time and accuracy for methods with and without explicitly used binary variables.

The application of mathematical optimization methods for water supply system design and operation provides the capacity to increase the energy efficiency and to lower the investment costs considerably. We present a system approach for the optimal design and operation of pumping systems in real-world high-rise buildings that is based on the usage of mixed-integer nonlinear and mixed-integer linear modeling approaches. In addition, we consider different booster station topologies, i.e. parallel and series-parallel central booster stations as well as decentral booster stations. To confirm the validity of the underlying optimization models with real-world system behavior, we additionally present validation results based on experiments conducted on a modularly constructed pumping test rig. Within the models we consider layout and control decisions for different load scenarios, leading to a Deterministic Equivalent of a two-stage stochastic optimization program. We use a piecewise linearization as well as a piecewise relaxation of the pumps’ characteristics to derive mixed-integer linear models. Besides the solution with off-the-shelf solvers, we present a problem specific exact solving algorithm to improve the computation time. Focusing on the efficient exploration of the solution space, we divide the problem into smaller subproblems, which partly can be cut off in the solution process. Furthermore, we discuss the performance and applicability of the solution approaches for real buildings and analyze the technical aspects of the solutions from an engineer’s point of view, keeping in mind the economically important trade-off between investment and operation costs.