## Taylor & Francis

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This paper describes the procedure on the evaluation of the masonry chapter for the next generation of Eurocode 8, the European Standard for earthquake-resistant design. In CEN, TC 250/SC8, working group WG 1 has been established to support the subcommittee on the topic of masonry on both design of new structures (EN1998-1) and assessment of existing structures (EN1998-3). The aim is to elaborate suggestions for amendments which fit the current state of the art in masonry and earthquake-resistant design. Focus will be on modelling, simplified methods, linear-analysis (q-values, overstrength-values), nonlinear procedures, out-of-plane design as well as on clearer definition of limit states. Beside these, topics related to general material properties, reinforced masonry, confined masonry, mixed structures and non-structural infills will be covered too. This paper presents the preliminary work and results up to the submission date.

This study aims to quantify the kinematics, kinetics and muscular activity of all-out handcycling exercise and examine their alterations during the course of a 15-s sprint test. Twelve able-bodied competitive triathletes performed a 15-s all-out sprint test in a recumbent racing handcycle that was attached to an ergometer. During the sprint test, tangential crank kinetics, 3D joint kinematics and muscular activity of 10 muscles of the upper extremity and trunk were examined using a power metre, motion capturing and surface electromyography (sEMG), respectively. Parameters were compared between revolution one (R1), revolution two (R2), the average of revolution 3 to 13 (R3) and the average of the remaining revolutions (R4). Shoulder abduction and internal-rotation increased, whereas maximal shoulder retroversion decreased during the sprint. Except for the wrist angles, angular velocity increased for every joint of the upper extremity. Several muscles demonstrated an increase in muscular activation, an earlier onset of muscular activation in crank cycle and an increased range of activation. During the course of a 15-s all-out sprint test in handcycling, the shoulder muscles and the muscles associated to the push phase demonstrate indications for short-duration fatigue. These findings are helpful to prevent injuries and improve performance in all-out handcycling.

On the applicability of several tests to models with not identically distributed random effects
(2023)

We consider Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Cramér–von-Mises type tests for testing central symmetry, exchangeability, and independence. In the standard case, the tests are intended for the application to independent and identically distributed data with unknown distribution. The tests are available for multivariate data and bootstrap procedures are suitable to obtain critical values. We discuss the applicability of the tests to random effects models, where the random effects are independent but not necessarily identically distributed and with possibly unknown distributions. Theoretical results show the adequacy of the tests in this situation. The quality of the tests in models with random effects is investigated by simulations. Empirical results obtained confirm the theoretical findings. A real data example illustrates the application.

Assistance systems have been widely adopted in the manufacturing sector to facilitate various processes and tasks in production environments. However, existing systems are mostly equipped with rigid functional logic and do not provide individual user experiences or adapt to their capabilities. This work integrates human factors in assistance systems by adjusting the hardware and instruction presented to the workers’ cognitive and physical demands. A modular system architecture is designed accordingly, which allows a flexible component exchange according to the user and the work task. Gamification, the use of game elements in non-gaming contexts, has been further adopted in this work to provide level-based instructions and personalised feedback. The developed framework is validated by applying it to a manual workstation for industrial assembly routines.

The Cramér-von-Mises distance is applied to the distribution of the excess over a confidence level. Asymptotics of related statistics are investigated, and it is seen that the obtained limit distributions differ from the classical ones. For that reason, quantiles of the new limit distributions are given and new bootstrap techniques for approximation purposes are introduced and justified. The results motivate new one-sample goodness-of-fit tests for the distribution of the excess over a confidence level and a new confidence interval for the related fitting error. Simulation studies investigate size and power of the tests as well as coverage probabilities of the confidence interval in the finite sample case. A practice-oriented application of the Cramér-von-Mises tests is the determination of an appropriate confidence level for the fitting approach. The adoption of the idea to the well-known problem of threshold detection in the context of peaks over threshold modelling is sketched and illustrated by data examples.

In this paper, we provide an analytical study of the transmission eigenvalue problem with two conductivity parameters. We will assume that the underlying physical model is given by the scattering of a plane wave for an isotropic scatterer. In previous studies, this eigenvalue problem was analyzed with one conductive boundary parameter whereas we will consider the case of two parameters. We prove the existence and discreteness of the transmission eigenvalues as well as study the dependence on the physical parameters. We are able to prove monotonicity of the first transmission eigenvalue with respect to the parameters and consider the limiting procedure as the second boundary parameter vanishes. Lastly, we provide extensive numerical experiments to validate the theoretical work.

In a special paired sample case, Hotelling’s T² test based on the differences of the paired random vectors is the likelihood ratio test for testing the hypothesis that the paired random vectors have the same mean; with respect to a special group of affine linear transformations it is the uniformly most powerful invariant test for the general alternative of a difference in mean. We present an elementary straightforward proof of this result. The likelihood ratio test for testing the hypothesis that the covariance structure is of the assumed special form is derived and discussed. Applications to real data are given.

The paper deals with an asymptotic relative efficiency concept for confidence regions of multidimensional parameters that is based on the expected volumes of the confidence regions. Under standard conditions the asymptotic relative efficiencies of confidence regions are seen to be certain powers of the ratio of the limits of the expected volumes. These limits are explicitly derived for confidence regions associated with certain plugin estimators, likelihood ratio tests and Wald tests. Under regularity conditions, the asymptotic relative efficiency of each of these procedures with respect to each one of its competitors is equal to 1. The results are applied to multivariate normal distributions and multinomial distributions in a fairly general setting.

Suppose we have k samples X₁,₁,…,X₁,ₙ₁,…,Xₖ,₁,…,Xₖ,ₙₖ with different sample sizes ₙ₁,…,ₙₖ and unknown underlying distribution functions F₁,…,Fₖ as observations plus k families of distribution functions {G₁(⋅,ϑ);ϑ∈Θ},…,{Gₖ(⋅,ϑ);ϑ∈Θ}, each indexed by elements ϑ from the same parameter set Θ, we consider the new goodness-of-fit problem whether or not (F₁,…,Fₖ) belongs to the parametric family {(G₁(⋅,ϑ),…,Gₖ(⋅,ϑ));ϑ∈Θ}. New test statistics are presented and a parametric bootstrap procedure for the approximation of the unknown null distributions is discussed. Under regularity assumptions, it is proved that the approximation works asymptotically, and the limiting distributions of the test statistics in the null hypothesis case are determined. Simulation studies investigate the quality of the new approach for small and moderate sample sizes. Applications to real-data sets illustrate how the idea can be used for verifying model assumptions.