## Low-Thrust Mission Analysis and Global Trajectory Optimization Using Evolutionary Neurocontrol: New Results

- Interplanetary trajectories for low-thrust spacecraft are often characterized by multiple revolutions around the sun. Unfortunately, the convergence of traditional trajectory optimizers that are based on numerical optimal control methods depends strongly on an adequate initial guess for the control function (if a direct method is used) or for the starting values of the adjoint vector (if an indirect method is used). Especially when many revolutions around the sun are re- quired, trajectory optimization becomes a very difficult and time-consuming task that involves a lot of experience and expert knowledge in astrodynamics and optimal control theory, because an adequate initial guess is extremely hard to find. Evolutionary neurocontrol (ENC) was proposed as a smart method for low-thrust trajectory optimization that fuses artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms to so-called evolutionary neurocontrollers (ENCs) [1]. Inspired by natural archetypes, ENC attacks the trajectoryoptimization problem from the perspective of artificial intelligence and machine learning, a perspective that is quite different from that of optimal control theory. Within the context of ENC, a trajectory is regarded as the result of a spacecraft steering strategy that maps permanently the actual spacecraft state and the actual target state onto the actual spacecraft control vector. This way, the problem of searching the optimal spacecraft trajectory is equivalent to the problem of searching (or "learning") the optimal spacecraft steering strategy. An artificial neural network is used to implement such a spacecraft steering strategy. It can be regarded as a parameterized function (the network function) that is defined by the internal network parameters. Therefore, each distinct set of network parameters defines a different network function and thus a different steering strategy. The problem of searching the optimal steering strategy is now equivalent to the problem of searching the optimal set of network parameters. Evolutionary algorithms that work on a population of (artificial) chromosomes are used to find the optimal network parameters, because the parameters can be easily mapped onto a chromosome. The trajectory optimization problem is solved when the optimal chromosome is found. A comparison of solar sail trajectories that have been published by others [2, 3, 4, 5] with ENC-trajectories has shown that ENCs can be successfully applied for near-globally optimal spacecraft control [1, 6] and that they are able to find trajectories that are closer to the (unknown) global optimum, because they explore the trajectory search space more exhaustively than a human expert can do. The obtained trajectories are fairly accurate with respect to the terminal constraint. If a more accurate trajectory is required, the ENC-solution can be used as an initial guess for a local trajectory optimization method. Using ENC, low-thrust trajectories can be optimized without an initial guess and without expert attendance. Here, new results for nuclear electric spacecraft and for solar sail spacecraft are presented and it will be shown that ENCs find very good trajectories even for very difficult problems. Trajectory optimization results are presented for 1. NASA's Solar Polar Imager Mission, a mission to attain a highly inclined close solar orbit with a solar sail [7] 2. a mission to de ect asteroid Apophis with a solar sail from a retrograde orbit with a very-high velocity impact [8, 9] 3. JPL's \2nd Global Trajectory Optimization Competition", a grand tour to visit four asteroids from different classes with a NEP spacecraft

Author: | Bernd DachwaldORCiD |
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Parent Title (English): | European Workshop on Space Mission Analysis ESA/ESOC, Darmstadt, Germany 10 { 12 Dec 2007 |

Document Type: | Conference Proceeding |

Language: | English |

Year of Completion: | 2007 |

Institutes: | FH Aachen / Fachbereich Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik |

FH Aachen / IfB - Institut für Bioengineering |