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3rd YRA MedTech Symposium. YRA - Young Researchers Academy, MedTech in NRW, May 24, 2019, FH Aachen
(2019)

The vaginal prolapse after hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) is often associated with the prolapse of the vaginal vault, rectum, bladder, urethra or small bowel. Minimally
invasive surgery such as laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy and pectopexy are widely performed for the treatment of the vaginal prolapse with weakly supported vaginal vault after hysterectomy using prosthetic mesh implants to support (or strengthen) lax apical ligaments. Implants of different shape, size and polymers are selected depending on the patient’s anatomy and the surgeon’s preference. In this computational study on pectopexy, DynaMesh®-PRP soft, GYNECARE GYNEMESH® PS Nonabsorbable PROLENE® soft and Ultrapro® are tested in a 3D finite element model of the female pelvic floor. The mesh model is implanted into the extraperitoneal space and sutured to the vaginal stump with a bilateral fixation to the iliopectineal ligament at both sides. Numerical simulations are conducted at rest, after surgery and during Valsalva maneuver with weakened tissues modeled by reduced tissue stiffness. Tissues and prosthetic meshes are modeled as incompressible, isotropic hyperelastic materials. The positions of the organs are calculated with respect to the pubococcygeal line (PCL) for female pelvic floor at rest, after repair and during Valsalva maneuver using the three meshes.

The overall objective of this study is to develop a new external fixator, which closely maps the native kinematics of the elbow to decrease the joint force resulting in reduced rehabilitation time and pain. An experimental setup was designed to determine the native kinematics of the elbow during flexion of cadaveric arms. As a preliminary study, data from literature was used to modify a published biomechanical model for the calculation of the joint and muscle forces. They were compared to the original model and the effect of the kinematic refinement was evaluated. Furthermore, the obtained muscle forces were determined in order to apply them in the experimental setup. The joint forces in the modified model differed slightly from the forces in the original model. The muscle force curves changed particularly for small flexion angles but their magnitude for larger angles was consistent.

Electromechanical model of hiPSC-derived ventricular cardiomyocytes cocultured with fibroblasts
(2018)

The CellDrum provides an experimental setup to study the mechanical effects of fibroblasts co-cultured with hiPSC-derived ventricular cardiomyocytes. Multi-scale computational models based on the Finite Element Method are developed. Coupled electrical cardiomyocyte-fibroblast models (cell level) are embedded into reaction-diffusion equations (tissue level) which compute the propagation of the action potential in the cardiac tissue. Electromechanical coupling is realised by an excitation-contraction model (cell level) and the active stress arising during contraction is added to the passive stress in the force balance, which determines the tissue displacement (tissue level). Tissue parameters in the model can be identified experimentally to the specific sample.

We propose a stochastic programming method to analyse limit and shakedown of structures under random strength with lognormal distribution. In this investigation a dual chance constrained programming algorithm is developed to calculate simultaneously both the upper and lower bounds of the plastic collapse limit or the shakedown limit. The edge-based smoothed finite element method (ES-FEM) using three-node linear triangular elements is used.

Biomechanical simulation of different prosthetic meshes for repairing uterine/vaginal vault prolapse
(2017)

Smoothed Finite Element Methods for Nonlinear Solid Mechanics Problems: 2D and 3D Case Studies
(2016)

The Smoothed Finite Element Method (SFEM) is presented as an edge-based and a facebased techniques for 2D and 3D boundary value problems, respectively. SFEMs avoid shortcomings of the standard Finite Element Method (FEM) with lower order elements such as overly stiff behavior, poor stress solution, and locking effects. Based on the idea of averaging spatially the standard strain field of the FEM over so-called smoothing domains SFEM calculates the stiffness matrix for the same number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) as those of the FEM. However, the SFEMs significantly improve accuracy and convergence even for distorted meshes and/or nearly incompressible materials.
Numerical results of the SFEMs for a cardiac tissue membrane (thin plate inflation) and an artery (tension of 3D tube) show clearly their advantageous properties in improving accuracy particularly for the distorted meshes and avoiding shear locking effects.

A 3D finite element model of the female pelvic floor for the reconstruction of urinary incontinence
(2014)

Summary: This paper presents a methodology to study and understand the mechanics of stapled anastomotic behaviors by combining empirical experimentation and finite element analysis. Performance of stapled anastomosis is studied in terms of leakage and numerical results which are compared to in vitro experiments performed on fresh porcine tissue. Results suggest that leaks occur between the tissue and staple legs penetrating through the tissue.

7th International Conference on Reliability of Materials and Structures (RELMAS 2008). June 17 - 20, 2008 ; Saint Petersburg, Russia. pp 354-358. Reprint with corrections in red Introduction Analysis of advanced structures working under extreme heavy loading such as nuclear power plants and piping system should take into account the randomness of loading, geometrical and material parameters. The existing reliability are restricted mostly to the elastic working regime, e.g. allowable local stresses. Development of the limit and shakedown reliability-based analysis and design methods, exploiting potential of the shakedown working regime, is highly needed. In this paper the application of a new algorithm of probabilistic limit and shakedown analysis for shell structures is presented, in which the loading and strength of the material as well as the thickness of the shell are considered as random variables. The reliability analysis problems may be efficiently solved by using a system combining the available FE codes, a deterministic limit and shakedown analysis, and the First and Second Order Reliability Methods (FORM/SORM). Non-linear sensitivity analyses are obtained directly from the solution of the deterministic problem without extra computational costs.

Proceedings of the International Conference on Material Theory and Nonlinear Dynamics. MatDyn. Hanoi, Vietnam, Sept. 24-26, 2007, 8 p. In this paper, a method is introduced to determine the limit load of general shells using the finite element method. The method is based on an upper bound limit and shakedown analysis with elastic-perfectly plastic material model. A non-linear constrained optimisation problem is solved by using Newton’s method in conjunction with a penalty method and the Lagrangean dual method. Numerical investigation of a pipe bend subjected to bending moments proves the effectiveness of the algorithm.

A procedure for the evaluation of the failure probability of elastic-plastic thin shell structures is presented. The procedure involves a deterministic limit and shakedown analysis for each probabilistic iteration which is based on the kinematical approach and the use the exact Ilyushin yield surface. Based on a direct definition of the limit state function, the non-linear problems may be efficiently solved by using the First and Second Order Reliabiblity Methods (Form/SORM). This direct approach reduces considerably the necessary knowledge of uncertain technological input data, computing costs and the numerical error. In: Computational plasticity / ed. by Eugenio Onate. Dordrecht: Springer 2007. VII, 265 S. (Computational Methods in Applied Sciences ; 7) (COMPLAS IX. Part 1 . International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE)). ISBN 978-1-402-06576-7 S. 186-189

In: Technical feasibility and reliability of passive safety systems for nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an Advisory Group Meeting held in Jülich, 21-24 November 1994. - Vienna , 1996. - Seite: 43 - 55 IAEA-TECDOC-920 Abstract: It is shown that the difficulty for probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) is the general problem of the high reliability of a small population. There is no way around the problem as yet. Therefore what PFM can contribute to the reliability of steel pressure boundaries is demonstrated with the example of a typical reactor pressure vessel and critically discussed. Although no method is distinguishable that could give exact failure probabilities, PFM has several additional chances. Upper limits for failure probability may be obtained together with trends for design and operating conditions. Further, PFM can identify the most sensitive parameters, improved control of which would increase reliability. Thus PFM should play a vital role in the analysis of steel pressure boundaries despite all shortcomings.

This paper presents the direct route to Design by Analysis (DBA) of the new European pressure vessel standard in the language of limit and shakedown analysis (LISA). This approach leads to an optimization problem. Its solution with Finite Element Analysis is demonstrated for some examples from the DBA-Manual. One observation from the examples is, that the optimisation approach gives reliable and close lower bound solutions leading to simple and optimised design decision.

Structural design analyses are conducted with the aim of verifying the exclusion of ratcheting. To this end it is important to make a clear distinction between the shakedown range and the ratcheting range. In cyclic plasticity more sophisticated hardening models have been suggested in order to model the strain evolution observed in ratcheting experiments. The hardening models used in shakedown analysis are comparatively simple. It is shown that shakedown analysis can make quite stable predictions of admissible load ranges despite the simplicity of the underlying hardening models. A linear and a nonlinear kinematic hardening model of two-surface plasticity are compared in material shakedown analysis. Both give identical or similar shakedown ranges. Structural shakedown analyses show that the loading may have a more pronounced effect than the hardening model.